The Morozovs’ Institute for the treatment of tumors in the past, it was founded in 1898 on the initiative of a prominent Russian surgeon, Professor at Moscow University, L. Levshin and his disciple Professor V. Zykov. The Institute was built on the donations of Moscow merchants, mostly of the Morozovs family.
It became the oldest scientific and practical institution in Europe and the first oncology institution in Russia, where the foundations were laid for the Russian science and oncology services. The Institute has formed a scientific and clinical school, which was completed by many now leading oncologists in Russia and other countries. Many outstanding scientists who have made significant contributions to the development of cancer in Russia worked in the institute: full members of Russian Academy of Sciences – A.I. Abrikosov, B.V. Petrovskiy; Corresponding Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences – P.A. Herzen, N.N.Petrov; full members of RAMS – S.S. Debov, B.I. Zbarskiy, L.A. Silber, A.S. Silber, A.S. Pavlov, A.I. Savitskiy, L.M. Shabad; Corresponding Members of the Academy of Medical Sciences – L.N. Novikov B.V. Ognev, B.E. Peterson et al.
In different years the Institute was headed by: L.L. Levshin, V.M. Zykov, V.R. Braytsev, P.A. Herzen, V.M. Bruskin, A.I.Savitskiy, A. Novikov, P.S. Pavlov, S.I. Sergeev, B.E. Peterson. In 1934 The Institute was reorganized into the Central Research Oncological Institute of RSFSR People's Commissariat of Health. From 1922 to 1933 the director of the Institute was an outstanding scientist, surgeon, a founder of the Moscow School of Oncology P.A.Hertsen. For his significant contribution to the development of the Institute and oncological science in Russia Central Scientific Research Oncological Institute of the RSFSR People's Commissariat of Health was named after him in 1947. Since 1982 till 2013 the Institute was headed by fumm member of RAMS, Prof. V.V. Chissov. Since 2013 till date the director of the Institute is a correspondent member of RAMS, Prof. Andrey Dmitrievich Kaprin.